Food Technology is a study of making, storage, preservation, packaging and distribution of food items. Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as “the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public”. The textbook Food Science defines food science in simpler terms as “the application of basic sciences and engineering to study the physical, chemical, and biochemical nature of foods and the principles of food processing. Food processing is a branch of food science, which owes its existence to the prehistoric times. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for the consumption of humans and animals. Processing of food leads to preservation of food, enhances its flavor and reduces the toxins in the food product. It leads to better distributional efficiency and helps in the easy marketing of the food product.
Food processing is a modern practice that improves distributional efficiency and enhances the marketing of the food products. It is considered as a branch of food science, where a set of methods and techniques are used to transform raw ingredients into food for safe consumption by humans or animals. Though food processing existed even during prehistoric period, the technology input to enhance preservation of food, flavor, etc and to reduce the toxins in the food product is relatively new and has revolutionised the entire food industry. The modern food processing techniques have led to the feasibility of the development of the present day supermarkets. Long voyages would not be possible, and military campaigns would be more difficult and expensive to execute without food processing. Extra nutrients can also be added while processing the food and processed food is less susceptible to spoilage. The rising consumerism in the societies of developed and developing countries has contributed to the growth of food processing with techniques such as spray drying, juice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colorants, and preservatives. In the late 20th century products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, and self cooking meals were developed for the convenience of middle class wives and mothers and for the working women.
- Certificate in Food Processing
- Diploma in Food Processing
- Post PG Diploma in Food Processing
- Advance Diploma in Food Processing
- B. Sc in Food Processing –3 years
- B. Tech in Food Technology –3 years
- BSc in quality control in dairy processing –3 years
- BTech in dairy technology –3 years
- BSc in home science – 3 years
- B. Sc in Food Science- 2 years
- B. Tech Integrated – 2 years
- M. Tech in Food Technology –2 years
- M. Sc.inhome science –2 years
- Sc in biotechnology –2 years
- M. Sc in food and nutrition –2 years
- PhD in Food Technology
- PhD in biotechnology
One can specialize in any of the many fields of food processing such as sugar alcohol, bakery, oil, fruits and vegetables etc. one can do Ph.D in food technology or biotechnology or food preservation.
For B.Sc. in Home Science/ Food Technology/ Food Science, one should have passed 10+2 examinations with Physics, Chemistry and Biology as the main subjects. For M.Sc/Management, the minimum eligibility is a Bachelor Degree in Science with Chemistry/Biochemistry as one of the subjects or Agriculture / Engineering / Technology. Mathematics as one of the subjects in Plus 2 or Pre-University or at Degree level is compulsory for admission. Minimum Marks Required 55% in optional subjects of B.Sc. pass course (50% for SC / ST category) or 50% for B.Sc. (Hons.) course (45% for SC / ST category) or Minimum second class for Agriculture / Engineering / Technology
For admission in BSc. /MSc. many institutes conduct an entrance / aptitude test.
Due to demand of packed food in India and abroad is increased very fast. So there are many career options in this field for food technology professionals. Despite the fact that food processing industry in India is at developing stage, it offers exponential career opportunities to trained professionals in food processing. There are variety of job opportunities to graduate and postgraduates in food technology as well as professionals from backgrounds such as hotel management (with training in food and beverage), home science (with training in dietetics/food and nutrition) and dairy technology. Universities, governments, hospitals and research organizations, pharmaceutical and food manufacturing companies in India and around the world need people educated and trained in the science and application of nutrition.
One can find employment in companies, food research laboratories, catering companies, food wholesalers, hospitals, restaurants, health department, Food Retailing Food Production Companies etc. Higher education and special qualification helps in getting attractive position within the food processing sector. Qualification in home science and specialisations in food technology, nutrition or food services management can help you climb up the ladder in the industry. Similarly, certification in dietetics, applied nutrition, food science and preservation helps candidates advance in career. In the commercial setting dietitians are working in large institutions, factories, industrial houses, offices schools and with catering departments. Health and fitness clubs too employ dietitians who have specialized in health foods e. g. nutritious meals, snacks which are low in calorie content yet tasty. One can work as Food Inspector, Food technologists, Production Manager, food Packaging Manager Biochemists, Analytical Chemists, Organic Chemists, Managers and accountants, Biochemists, Analytical Chemists, Home Economists, Engineers, Research Scientists, and Lecturer etc.
Food processing industry offers salaries depending upon educational qualification, skills, work experience and contribution in the production process. Location of the food processing unit matters a lot in salary offered to candidates; however, professionals working in food processing units in metro cities earn attractive salaries. At the entry level the food technologists can earn around Rs.25, 000 to Rs.40, 000 per month. Similarly, those with work experience can earn Rs 35,000 – 80,000. Senior management persons with years of experience behind them can pocket very high salaries more than 1, 00,000.
- Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh amu.ac.in
- Annamalai University Annamalainagar annamalaiuniversity.ac.in
- Amity University Noida amity.edu
- GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pant Nagar gbpuat.ac.in
- BHU Varanasi bhu.ac.in
- Bundelkhand University Jhansi bujhansi.or
- Chaudhary Charan Singh University Meerut ccsuniversity.ac.in
- Calcutta University Kolkata caluniv.ac.in/
- SRM University Kancheepuram srmuniv.ac.in
- Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar gndu.ac.in
- Indraprastha University Delhi ipu.ac.in
- Kanpur University Kanpur kanpuruniversity.org
- Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra kuk.ac.in
- Lovely Professional University (LPU)Jalandhar lpu.ac.in
- Mumbai University Mumbai mu.ac.in
- Punjab Technical University Kapurthala
- University of Delhi Delhi du.ac.in
- University of Mysore uni-mysore.ac.in
- B.T. Technological Institute Kanpur www.hbti.ac.in
- National Sugar Institute: Kanpur, Chennai and Calcutta nsi.gov.in
- National Dairy Research Institute: Karnal and Bangalore ndri.res.in
- MS University, Vadodara msubaroda.ac.in
- N.D.T. Women’s University Mumbai www.sndt.digitaluniversity.ac.in
- Gujarat Central Food Technology Research Institute cftri.com
- Central Food Technology Research Institute, Mysore cftri.com
- Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Himachal Pradesh hillagric.ac.in
- Fruit Technology Institute, Lucknow niir.org
- Central Institute of Fisheries Education cife.edu.in
- Chitrakoot Gramoday University Satna ruraluniversity-chitrkoot.org
- IGNOU ignou.ac.in